Always defer to your dietician's advice.When it comes to controlling your diabetes, diet is crucial. Carefully managing the types and amounts of foods you eat allows you to manage your blood sugar level, which has a direct effect on the severity of your diabetes. The advice in this section comes from reputable diabetes resources, but every diabetes plan should be individually-tailored for you based on your age, size, activity level, condition, and genetics. Thus, the advice in this section is intended only as a general advice and shouldneverreplace the advice of a qualified doctor or nutritionist.
If you are unsure of how to obtain personalized diet information, talk to your doctor or general practitioner. S/he will be able to guide your diet plan or refer you to a qualified specialist.
Aim for a low-calorie, high nutrient diet.When someone eats more calories than s/he burns, the body responds by creating an increase in blood sugar.Since the symptoms of diabetes are caused by elevated blood sugar levels, this is undesirable for people suffering from diabetes. Thus, people with diabetes are generally encouraged to eat diets which provide as many essential nutrients as possible while keeping the total calories consumed per day at a sufficiently low level. Thus, foods (like many types of vegetables) which are nutrient-dense and low-calorie can make up a good portion of a healthy diabetes diet.
Low-calorie, high-nutrient diets are also helpful for diabetes because they ensure you remain at a healthy weight. Obesity is known to strongly contribute to the development of type 2 Diabetes. 
Prioritize healthy carbohydrates like whole grains.In recent years, much ado has been made about the health dangers posed by carbohydrates. In truth, most diabetes resources recommend eating controlled amounts of carbohydrates - specifically, healthy and nutritious varieties of carbohydrates. Generally, diabetic individuals will want to limit their intake of carbohydrates to moderately low levels and to make sure that the carbohydrates theydoeat are whole grain, high-fiber carbohydrates. See below for more information:
Many carbohydrates are grain products, which are derived from wheat, oat, rice, barley, and similar grains. Grain products can be divided into two categories - whole grains and refined grains. Whole grains contain the entire grain, including the nutrient-rich outer portions (called the bran and germ), while refined grains only contain the innermost starchy portion (called the endosperm), which is less nutrient-rich. For a given calorie amount, whole grains are much more nutrient-rich than refined grains, so try to prioritize whole grain products over "white" breads, pastas, rice, and so on.
Eat fiber-rich foods.Fiber is a nutrient contained in vegetables, fruits, and other plant-derived foods. Fiber is largely indigestible - when it's eaten, most fiber passes through the intestine without being digested. Though fiber doesn't provide much nutrition, it does provide a variety of health benefits. For instance, it helps control feelings of hunger, making it easier to eat healthy amounts of food. It also contributes to digestive health and is famously known to help "keep you regular".High-fiber foods are a great choice for diabetics because they make it easier to eat a healthy amount of food each day.
High-fiber foods include most fruits (especially raspberries, pears, and apples), whole grains, bran, legumes (especially beans and lentils), vegetables (especially artichokes, broccoli, and green beans).
Eat lean sources of protein.Protein is often (rightly) lauded as a healthy source of energy and muscle-building nutrition, but some sources of protein can come loaded with fat. For a smarter option, choose low-fat, high-nutrientleanprotein sources. In addition to supplying the nutrition needed for a strong, healthy body, protein is also known to produce a greater, longer-lasting feeling of fullness than other sources of calories.
Lean proteins include skinless white meat chicken (dark meat has a little more fat, while the skin is high-fat), most fish, dairy products, beans, eggs, pork tenderloin, and lean varieties of red meat.
Eat some "good" fats, but enjoy these sparingly.Contrary to popular belief, dietary fat isn'talwaysa bad thing. In fact, certain types of fat, namely mono and polyunsaturated fats (which include Omega 3's) are known to provide health benefits, including lowering the body's level of LDL, or "bad" cholesterol.However, all fats are calorie-dense, so you'll want to enjoy fats sparingly to maintain a healthy weight. Try to add small servings of "good" fats into your diet without increasing your overall calorie load per day - your doctor or dietician will be able to help you here.
Foods that are rich in "good" fats (mono and polyunsaturated fats) include avocados, most nuts (including almonds, pecans, cashews, and peanuts), fish, tofu, flaxseed, and more.
On the other hand, foods that are rich in "bad" fats (saturated and trans fats) include fatty meats (including regular beef or ground beef, bacon, sausage, etc.), fatty dairy products (including cream, ice cream, full-fat milk, cheese, butter, etc.), chocolate, lard, coconut oil, poultry skins, processed snack foods, and fried foods.
Avoid foods rich in cholesterol.Cholesterol is a lipid - a type of fat molecule - that is naturally produced by the body in order to serve as an important part of cell membranes. Though the body naturally requires a certain amount of cholesterol, elevated levels of blood cholesterol can lead to health problems - especially for people with diabetes. High cholesterol levels can lead to a variety of serious cardiovascular problems, including heart disease and stroke. People with diabetes are naturally predisposed to having cholesterol levels that are unhealthy, so it's extra important for diabetes sufferers to monitor their cholesterol intake than for people without the disease.This means choosing foods carefully to limit the intake of cholesterol.
Cholesterol comes in two forms - LDL (or "bad") cholesterol and HDL (or "good") cholesterol. Bad cholesterol can build up on the inner walls of the arteries, causing eventual problems heart attack and stroke, while good cholesterol helps remove damaging cholesterol from the blood. Thus, diabetics will want to keep their level of "bad" cholesterol intake as low as possible while eating healthy amounts of "good" cholesterol.
"Bad" cholesterol sources include: Fatty dairy products, egg yolks, liver and other types of organ meat, fatty meats, and poultry skin.
"Good" cholesterol sources include: Oatmeal, nuts, most fish, olive oil, and foods with plant sterols
Consume alcohol cautiously.Alcohol is often called a source of "empty calories", and for good reason - alcoholic beverages like beer, wine, and liquor contain calories but little in the way of actual nutrition. Luckily, most diabetics can still enjoy these entertaining (if not nutritious) drinks in moderation. According to the American Diabetes Association,moderatealcohol use actually has little effect on blood glucose control and does not contribute to heart disease.Thus, people with diabetes are generally encouraged to follow the same guidelines as people without diabetes when it comes alcohol: men can enjoy up to 2 drinks daily, while women can have 1 drink.
Note that, for medical purposes, "drinks" are defined as standard-size servings of the beverage in question - about 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1 & 1/2 ounces of liquor.
Note also that these guidelines do not account for sugary mixers and additives which may be added to cocktails and can negatively impact a diabetic's blood glucose level.
Use intelligent portion control.One of the most frustrating things about any diet, including a diabetes diet, is that eating too much ofanyfood - even healthy, nutritious food - can cause weight gain which leads to health problems. Because it's important for diabetics to keep their weight at a healthy level, portion control is a serious concern. Generally, for a large meal, like dinner, diabetics will want to eat plenty of nutritious, fiber-rich vegetables along with controlled amounts of lean protein and starchy grains or carbohydrates.
Many diabetes resources offer sample meal guides to help teach the importance of portion control. Most of such guides offer advice that strongly resemble the following:
Devote 1/2 of your plate to non-starchy, fiber-rich vegetables like kale, spinach, broccoli, green beans, bok choy, onion, pepper, turnip, tomatoes, cauliflower, and many more.
Devote 1/4 of your plate to healthy starches and grains like whole grain breads, oatmeal, rice, pasta, potatoes, beans, peas, grits, squash, and popcorn.
Devote 1/4 of your plate to lean protein like skinless chicken or turkey, fish, seafood, lean beef or pork, tofu, and eggs.